Considering the evidences analyzed, the urban regeneration initiatives based on an integrated approach that valorises the concept of the “milieu” are potentially drivers of sustainability and produce positive effects for communities by improving the supply of public services. The main results of the research, one related to the forms of PPP in urban regeneration initiative, the other related to the role of community led approach to reinforce urban regeneration by incorporating urban-rural interactions, have been oriented to give a contribution for the logical construction of the two new instruments ITI and CLLD.


The logics of urban district more suitable for enhancing the medium size city to implement the so called urban agenda 2020 with ITI “ by re-designing the role of nonprofit organizations in PPP; the community led approach to define the hub cities as urban center to interface from urban to rural context, for enhancing the integration between rural development policy with structural funds and making feasible the implementation of CLLD (ERDF/ESF funds together with European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).


The main scientific highlights can be summarized al follow:


  • the strategic role played by no-profit organizations in urban regeneration initiatives in US contexts, quite different from the role played in EU contexts


The no-profit organization seems to be the key factor to compensate concentration of business and

distribution of welfare. This important finding has been reached during the first period in Boston, by developing the research activities within the WP1 “Urban Management tools”.


  • The huge family of approaches in defining Public Private Partnership promoting the economic initiatives within urban regeneration processes has led to distinguish two main categories:


The first based on:

a) the initial formal or informal agreement among public and private partners;

b) the involvement of the public sector regarding financing of specific partnership projects and

provision of financial or not primarily financial incentives in order to attract private.

c) the dominant thread concerning infrastructure financing, construction, operation, and maintenance


The second based on:

a) A general pursuing to establish a partnership based on community development principles dealing

with the involvement of citizens, local companies and professionals to improve various aspects of local communities

b) the legal entity based on non-profit organization, which allows to participate to a set of advantages, such as tax relieves, special national trust for grant, etc.. ;

c) the dominant thread concerning in providing services and programs and engage in activities that support communities.


Concerning the two above different categories, we can argue that the former considers the definition of PPP in its strictly meaning, the latter in a broader sense.

Within the second category, we should pay attention on the difference between the BID instrument

and the other instruments based on neighborhood/community corporation.


As matter of fact, the BID is not properly community based, but supported by local business lobbies.

The common factor is the institution of a non-profit organization (NGO).


  • The distinction between PPP led and NGO led represented a driver to better understand which could be the more suitable model for Commercial Local Urban District connected with local production:

In a very generally way, we can argue that, in Europe, the NGO (no profit organization)

seems to play a role more connected with social purposes (see for example the programs under

structural funds), while the PPP, in its strictly meaning, plays the main role in urban regeneration

process as driver to enhance competitiveness.

In other words, NGO more direct to convergence policy, PPP more direct to competitiveness policy.


  • The urban regeneration initiatives analyzed in the San Diego Area generate benefits for the communities responding to local social needs.


This is due to some specific reasons:

First of all the context is characterized by the presence of a strong tradition in term of Community

involvement and Community planning. This process also helps the participation of community in the partnership typology analyzed. These processes reinforce the socioeconomic structure empowering local

communities, enhance the competitiveness of the urban area attracting both public and private investment and businesses; promote the valorisation of local natural resources, through the valorisation of the network composed by local producers and vendors (farmers’ market) that avoid to exploit local products valorising the surrounding areas. Findings, resulting from the analysis of the

set of variables chosen, show how the initiatives are effectively able to generate a surplus of social

benefits for the communities of the case study areas.


  • The explanatory variable “Urban-Rural linkage” points out how the presence of Farmers’ market and community gardens in the area produce the effect of empowering local communities and the valorisation of the local production system.


This makes effective the link between urban and rural are as providing more services for the community.

The amount of existing areas and planned areas for public facilities for the case studies selected show

a general trend of increasing the supply of public services and facilities in the areas selected.

Considering the evidences analysed, the urban regeneration initiatives based on an integrated approach that valorise the concept of the milieu are potentially drivers of sustainability and produce positive effects for communities by improving the supply of public services.


The contribution of the CLUDs project to Europe 2020 strategy, within the sustainable urban

development is related to:


  • the rationale of district for the implementation of ITI (Integrated Territorial Investment).
  • the rationale of the community led approach for the implementation of CLLD (Community -Led Local Development).







Università degli Studi "MEDITERRANEA"

CLUDs Lab  -  Community Local Urban Development Laboratory  -  Universita' degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria  -  Dipartimento Patrimonio Architettonico e Urbanistico

Via Salita Melissari, Feo di Vito  -  89124 Reggio Calabria IT  -  tel. (+39) 0965 385201   fax. (+39) 0965 385219